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projects:beer:beer [2013/10/02 09:52]
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projects:beer:beer [2014/10/09 20:48] (Version actuelle)
rossen [Experiment 13 - cider from commercial pasteurised apple juice]
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 ====== Beer ====== ====== Beer ======
  
-This project is part of a long-term plan to become more self-sufficient. ​ Brewing one's own beer is a critical part of any plan that pretends to have self-sufficiency as a goal.+This project is part of a long-term plan to become more self-sufficient. ​ Brewing one's own beer (or cider or wine) is a critical part of any plan that pretends to have self-sufficiency as a goal.
  
 ===== Experiment 1 - pale ale with no extra sugar ===== ===== Experiment 1 - pale ale with no extra sugar =====
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   * can opener   * can opener
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0883.jpg?​300|necessary equipment}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0883.jpg?​300|necessary equipment}}
  
 The [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Hydrometer|hydrometer]] merits a bit of explanation. ​ It is used to measure the density of the wort (malt+water mixture) at the start of fermentation and at the end.  By subtracting the difference in density, we know how much wort has been transformed into alcohol. ​ To get an accurate measurement,​ the hydrometer must float freely in the wort, so the level of the wort in the fermentation vessel must be deep, or a small sample of wort can be put in a graduated cylinder. ​ This hydrometer was sold for CDN$11 and packaged in a clear plastic cylinder that was reasonably usable. ​ Another trick is to spin the hydrometer in the wort before measuring or air bubbles on the glass will result in a false reading. The [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Hydrometer|hydrometer]] merits a bit of explanation. ​ It is used to measure the density of the wort (malt+water mixture) at the start of fermentation and at the end.  By subtracting the difference in density, we know how much wort has been transformed into alcohol. ​ To get an accurate measurement,​ the hydrometer must float freely in the wort, so the level of the wort in the fermentation vessel must be deep, or a small sample of wort can be put in a graduated cylinder. ​ This hydrometer was sold for CDN$11 and packaged in a clear plastic cylinder that was reasonably usable. ​ Another trick is to spin the hydrometer in the wort before measuring or air bubbles on the glass will result in a false reading.
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-{{:​projects:​beer1_0889.jpg?​300|hydrometer and its manual}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0889.jpg?​300|hydrometer and its manual}}
  
  
 90% of the work of brewing beer from a kit is cleaning the equipment and the bottles. ​ The cleaning is in 2 steps. ​ The first step is to clean away dirt and stains as much as possible with soap and warm water (and scrubbing, if necessary). ​ The second step is to sterilize all working surfaces by soaking in a weak bleach (eau de Javel) solution, 4ml per liter of water, for at least 20 minutes. 90% of the work of brewing beer from a kit is cleaning the equipment and the bottles. ​ The cleaning is in 2 steps. ​ The first step is to clean away dirt and stains as much as possible with soap and warm water (and scrubbing, if necessary). ​ The second step is to sterilize all working surfaces by soaking in a weak bleach (eau de Javel) solution, 4ml per liter of water, for at least 20 minutes.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0895.jpg?​300|sterilising the fermentation vessel with bleach}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0895.jpg?​300|sterilising the fermentation vessel with bleach}}
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0907.jpg?​300|instruments sterilising in bleach solution}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0907.jpg?​300|instruments sterilising in bleach solution}}
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0923.jpg?​300|rinsing the vessel with hot water to remove bleach traces}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0923.jpg?​300|rinsing the vessel with hot water to remove bleach traces}}
  
 While one is waiting for the sterilization to finish, re-reading the fine manual is a good use of time. While one is waiting for the sterilization to finish, re-reading the fine manual is a good use of time.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0903.jpg?​300|re-reading the fine manual that came with the beer kit}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0903.jpg?​300|re-reading the fine manual that came with the beer kit}}
  
 Here is the beer kit that we are using for this experiment. ​ My father who has been doing this for the last 15 years recommended it and it is reasonably cheap at CDN$12 each, but impossible to find in Europe. ​ There is a list of URLs for beer kits at the bottom of this page, but I think that we will soon be switching to home-made malt. Here is the beer kit that we are using for this experiment. ​ My father who has been doing this for the last 15 years recommended it and it is reasonably cheap at CDN$12 each, but impossible to find in Europe. ​ There is a list of URLs for beer kits at the bottom of this page, but I think that we will soon be switching to home-made malt.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0905.jpg?​300|the tin can of malt syrup}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0905.jpg?​300|the tin can of malt syrup}}
  
 Note for next time: do NOT forget to bring a proper can-opener!!! Note for next time: do NOT forget to bring a proper can-opener!!!
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0913.jpg?​300|opening the malt can with a jack-knife}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0913.jpg?​300|opening the malt can with a jack-knife}}
  
 The malt in this beer kit already has hops added to it.  It pours as slow as molasses and the can needs to be rinsed with hot water to get it all into the vessel. ​ Note for next time: bring oven mits!!! The malt in this beer kit already has hops added to it.  It pours as slow as molasses and the can needs to be rinsed with hot water to get it all into the vessel. ​ Note for next time: bring oven mits!!!
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0917.jpg?​300|the malt syrup resembles molasses}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0917.jpg?​300|the malt syrup resembles molasses}}
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0925.jpg?​300|malt pours slowly}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0925.jpg?​300|malt pours slowly}}
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0927.jpg?​300|really slowly}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0927.jpg?​300|really slowly}}
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0931.jpg?​300|washing out malt using hot water}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0931.jpg?​300|washing out malt using hot water}}
  
 The yeast works best around room temperature,​ so the wort is made by mixing boiling hot water and cool tap water in the right proportions and measuring with one's finger before adding the contents of the packet of dried brewers'​ yeast. ​ If I remember correctly, we had 3 litres of boiling water and 10 litres of tap water at about 10°C. ​ Note for next time: bring a thermometer!!! The yeast works best around room temperature,​ so the wort is made by mixing boiling hot water and cool tap water in the right proportions and measuring with one's finger before adding the contents of the packet of dried brewers'​ yeast. ​ If I remember correctly, we had 3 litres of boiling water and 10 litres of tap water at about 10°C. ​ Note for next time: bring a thermometer!!!
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0935.jpg?​300|topping up with water}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0935.jpg?​300|topping up with water}}
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0944.jpg?​300|adding dry yeast powder to the wort}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0944.jpg?​300|adding dry yeast powder to the wort}}
  
 At this point we screwed up.  I wanted to make a malt-only beer and did not add white sugar and water. ​ The result was that the level of wort in the vessel was too low and the hydrometer was resting on the bottom. ​ I did not think about using the plastic cylinder that the hydrometer was packed in until the day after (2012-08-08),​ so the starting density that I measured was probably too low since one full day of fermentation had already passed. The measured specific gravity was 1.022, but I suspect that the real starting specific gravity was more like 1.027 since the wort seemed pretty active already. Note for next time: get a proper graduated cylinder, at least 30 cm tall!!! At this point we screwed up.  I wanted to make a malt-only beer and did not add white sugar and water. ​ The result was that the level of wort in the vessel was too low and the hydrometer was resting on the bottom. ​ I did not think about using the plastic cylinder that the hydrometer was packed in until the day after (2012-08-08),​ so the starting density that I measured was probably too low since one full day of fermentation had already passed. The measured specific gravity was 1.022, but I suspect that the real starting specific gravity was more like 1.027 since the wort seemed pretty active already. Note for next time: get a proper graduated cylinder, at least 30 cm tall!!!
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0945.jpg?​300|the wort is too shallow for the hydrometer}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0945.jpg?​300|the wort is too shallow for the hydrometer}}
  
 The fermentation vessel that we borrowed from Michael is really nice.  It has a close-fitting top with a screw-down retaining ring and a red plastic top that has been retro-fitted with an airlock (CDN$3). The fermentation vessel that we borrowed from Michael is really nice.  It has a close-fitting top with a screw-down retaining ring and a red plastic top that has been retro-fitted with an airlock (CDN$3).
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0947.jpg?​300|sealing the lid of the vessel}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0947.jpg?​300|sealing the lid of the vessel}}
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0955.jpg?​300|close-up of the air-lock}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0955.jpg?​300|close-up of the air-lock}}
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0957.jpg?​300|screwing the air-lock into place}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0957.jpg?​300|screwing the air-lock into place}}
  
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_0966.jpg?​300|vessel waiting in the PTL shower}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_0966.jpg?​300|vessel waiting in the PTL shower}}
  
 The beer was bottled 2012-09-04 and at that point had a specific gravity of 1.010. ​ This is an excessive time to wait since fermentation was probably complete after only 2 weeks. ​ According to the table that came with the hydrometer, that corresponds to (3.6-1.3)=2.3% alcohol. ​ Pretty weak. The beer was bottled 2012-09-04 and at that point had a specific gravity of 1.010. ​ This is an excessive time to wait since fermentation was probably complete after only 2 weeks. ​ According to the table that came with the hydrometer, that corresponds to (3.6-1.3)=2.3% alcohol. ​ Pretty weak.
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 9 1.5 litre PET bottles were rinsed, sterilised with bleach solution, rinsed again, primed with 2 teaspoons of white sugar, and filled by siphoning from the fermentation vessel through a 1cm-diameter silicone tube, about 1.5 metres long.  The last 2 bottles were particularly turbid with yeast that got remixed in the beer.  Here again we screwed up by allowing the end of the tube to rest among the yeast at the bottom of the fermentation vessel. ​ Note for next time: during the last week of fermentation,​ elevate one edge of the vessel so that yeast concentrates in a corner. ​ Either that, or get a carboy and do at least one decanting. 9 1.5 litre PET bottles were rinsed, sterilised with bleach solution, rinsed again, primed with 2 teaspoons of white sugar, and filled by siphoning from the fermentation vessel through a 1cm-diameter silicone tube, about 1.5 metres long.  The last 2 bottles were particularly turbid with yeast that got remixed in the beer.  Here again we screwed up by allowing the end of the tube to rest among the yeast at the bottom of the fermentation vessel. ​ Note for next time: during the last week of fermentation,​ elevate one edge of the vessel so that yeast concentrates in a corner. ​ Either that, or get a carboy and do at least one decanting.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer1_1046.jpg?​300|seven of nine 1.5-litre bottles}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer1_1046.jpg?​300|seven of nine 1.5-litre bottles}}
  
 2012-09-11 2012-09-11
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 I did not really plan to let another week pass before bottling, but perhaps it was a good thing. The hydrometer now reads 1.002, so I assume that fermentation really must be complete. Specific gravity of 1.002 corresponds to about 0.2% alcohol, thus the alcohol content of the batch (before priming) is about 7.5% - 0.2% = 7.3%.  The entire batch (instead of each bottle individually) was primed with a mixture of about 400g sugar with gelatin (normally used for making jam) dissolved in 1 litre of boiling water. ​ The primer was evenly poured over the top of the batch without further mixing in order to avoid stirring up the yeast at the bottom. ​ Final bottled volume was about 18.5 litres, so there was a fair amount of spillage, perhaps 3 litres. I did not really plan to let another week pass before bottling, but perhaps it was a good thing. The hydrometer now reads 1.002, so I assume that fermentation really must be complete. Specific gravity of 1.002 corresponds to about 0.2% alcohol, thus the alcohol content of the batch (before priming) is about 7.5% - 0.2% = 7.3%.  The entire batch (instead of each bottle individually) was primed with a mixture of about 400g sugar with gelatin (normally used for making jam) dissolved in 1 litre of boiling water. ​ The primer was evenly poured over the top of the batch without further mixing in order to avoid stirring up the yeast at the bottom. ​ Final bottled volume was about 18.5 litres, so there was a fair amount of spillage, perhaps 3 litres.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer2_20121009_1.jpg?​300|brewing rack}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer2_20121009_1.jpg?​300|brewing rack}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer2_20121009_2.jpg?​300|shelf of beer #2}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer2_20121009_2.jpg?​300|shelf of beer #2}}
  
 2012-10-16 2012-10-16
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 Opened one of the 330ml bottles and measured its specific gravity at a little more than 1.002, probably due to unfermented primer. ​ The beer is too sweet to be called "​ready"​. Opened one of the 330ml bottles and measured its specific gravity at a little more than 1.002, probably due to unfermented primer. ​ The beer is too sweet to be called "​ready"​.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer2_20121016_1.jpg?​300|exploded bottles}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer2_20121016_1.jpg?​300|exploded bottles}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer2_20121016_2.jpg?​300|exploded bottles}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer2_20121016_2.jpg?​300|exploded bottles}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer2_20121016_3.jpg?​300|exploded bottles}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer2_20121016_3.jpg?​300|exploded bottles}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer2_20121016_4.jpg?​300|exploded bottles}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer2_20121016_4.jpg?​300|exploded bottles}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer2_20121016_5.jpg?​300|exploded bottles}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer2_20121016_5.jpg?​300|exploded bottles}}
  
  
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 Tried concentrating by freezing the hooch in a plastic Coke bottle for about 1.5 hours at -16°C and then dumping the resulting slush (resembles a marguerita) into a funnel to filter out the liquid part.  Did the same thing for a bottle of beer of the last batch. ​ In both cases the remaining ice had lost most of the original flavor, indicating that the liquid was concentrated "good stuff"​. ​ The liquid in both cases did not really change taste, in my opinion, but others said that they tasted a difference. ​ Finished the beer, but the hooch is currently undrinkable so I dumped the sample. Tried concentrating by freezing the hooch in a plastic Coke bottle for about 1.5 hours at -16°C and then dumping the resulting slush (resembles a marguerita) into a funnel to filter out the liquid part.  Did the same thing for a bottle of beer of the last batch. ​ In both cases the remaining ice had lost most of the original flavor, indicating that the liquid was concentrated "good stuff"​. ​ The liquid in both cases did not really change taste, in my opinion, but others said that they tasted a difference. ​ Finished the beer, but the hooch is currently undrinkable so I dumped the sample.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer4_20121110_1.jpg?​300|partly-frozen beer and hooch}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer4_20121110_1.jpg?​300|partly-frozen beer and hooch}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer4_20121110_6.jpg?​300|right-to-left,​ original beer, concentrated beer, melted ice water}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer4_20121110_6.jpg?​300|right-to-left,​ original beer, concentrated beer, melted ice water}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer4_20121110_5.jpg?​300|original unconcentrated beer}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer4_20121110_5.jpg?​300|original unconcentrated beer}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer4_20121110_4.jpg?​300|concentrated beer}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer4_20121110_4.jpg?​300|concentrated beer}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer4_20121110_3.jpg?​300|melted icewater}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer4_20121110_3.jpg?​300|melted icewater}}
  
 2013-06-30 2013-06-30
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 At this point I tried filtering the slush with a funnel, but it was too fine and did not want to separate into liquid and solid phases. ​ Put the hooch back in the freezer to try again on Tuesday. At this point I tried filtering the slush with a funnel, but it was too fine and did not want to separate into liquid and solid phases. ​ Put the hooch back in the freezer to try again on Tuesday.
 +
 ===== Experiment 5 - SIOS Altbier full-grain ale ===== ===== Experiment 5 - SIOS Altbier full-grain ale =====
  
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 After reading the manual and experimenting with the grinder tension screw, we found a setting that seemed to produce broken barley grains without turning them into powder. ​ This is ideal because one wants the hot water to reach the heart of the grains, but one also wants to be able to filter out the solid bits after cooking. ​  Lloyd managed to grind the 4.7 kg of barley in about 45 minutes. ​ The job was mostly effortless, but perhaps a bit tedious after a while. After reading the manual and experimenting with the grinder tension screw, we found a setting that seemed to produce broken barley grains without turning them into powder. ​ This is ideal because one wants the hot water to reach the heart of the grains, but one also wants to be able to filter out the solid bits after cooking. ​  Lloyd managed to grind the 4.7 kg of barley in about 45 minutes. ​ The job was mostly effortless, but perhaps a bit tedious after a while.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_1.jpg?​300|a tablespoon of broken malted barley}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_1.jpg?​300|a tablespoon of broken malted barley}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_2.jpg?​300|closer view of a tablespoon of broken malted barley}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_2.jpg?​300|closer view of a tablespoon of broken malted barley}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_3.jpg?​300|closest view of a tablespoon of broken malted barley}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_3.jpg?​300|closest view of a tablespoon of broken malted barley}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_4.jpg?​300|grinder}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_4.jpg?​300|grinder}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_5.jpg?​300|Lloyd grinding}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_5.jpg?​300|Lloyd grinding}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_6.jpg?​300|4.5 kg of broken malted barley}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_6.jpg?​300|4.5 kg of broken malted barley}}
  
 15h30 15h30
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 After a break for lunch, we lined the interior of the electric cauldron with the cloth bag and heated 25l of water to 78°C. ​ We carefully added the crushed barley, stirring it in without adding air.  We just barely managed to get everything in - the liquid level was less than 1cm from the edge of the cauldron. ​ By the time that all of the barley had been stirred in, the temperate had dropped to 67°C and it took 15 minutes to recuperate. ​ We gently stirred the barley mash at least once every 5 minutes, bringing up spoonfuls of mash from the bottom of the cloth bag.  The odor reminds one very strongly of Ovomaltine. ​ Because the wort was so close to the edge of the cauldron, we made a special effort to skim off any floating barley husks that caused foam to build up. After a break for lunch, we lined the interior of the electric cauldron with the cloth bag and heated 25l of water to 78°C. ​ We carefully added the crushed barley, stirring it in without adding air.  We just barely managed to get everything in - the liquid level was less than 1cm from the edge of the cauldron. ​ By the time that all of the barley had been stirred in, the temperate had dropped to 67°C and it took 15 minutes to recuperate. ​ We gently stirred the barley mash at least once every 5 minutes, bringing up spoonfuls of mash from the bottom of the cloth bag.  The odor reminds one very strongly of Ovomaltine. ​ Because the wort was so close to the edge of the cauldron, we made a special effort to skim off any floating barley husks that caused foam to build up.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_10.jpg?​300|skimming off foam and husks}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_10.jpg?​300|skimming off foam and husks}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_11.jpg?​300|stirring and skimming the mash}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_11.jpg?​300|stirring and skimming the mash}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_12.jpg?​300|stirring and skimming the mash}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_12.jpg?​300|stirring and skimming the mash}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_13.jpg?​300|stirring and skimming the mash}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_13.jpg?​300|stirring and skimming the mash}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_14.jpg?​300|stirring and skimming the mash}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_14.jpg?​300|stirring and skimming the mash}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_15.jpg?​300|stirring the mash with all foam finally removed}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_15.jpg?​300|stirring the mash with all foam finally removed}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_16.jpg?​300|stirring the mash with all foam finally removed}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_16.jpg?​300|stirring the mash with all foam finally removed}}
  
 16h30 16h30
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 We removed the bag and while 2 of us held the bag open, another scooped a couple of litres of hot wort from the cauldron and carefully poured it through the mash.  After squeezing out as much wort as possible from the mash, we set the wort to boil starting at 16h45. ​ At this point I think we had about 20 litres of wort. We removed the bag and while 2 of us held the bag open, another scooped a couple of litres of hot wort from the cauldron and carefully poured it through the mash.  After squeezing out as much wort as possible from the mash, we set the wort to boil starting at 16h45. ​ At this point I think we had about 20 litres of wort.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_17.jpg?​300|draining the bag of mash}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_17.jpg?​300|draining the bag of mash}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_18.jpg?​300|draining the bag of mash}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_18.jpg?​300|draining the bag of mash}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_19.jpg?​300|draining the bag of mash}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_19.jpg?​300|draining the bag of mash}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_20.jpg?​300|prepping the bag of mash to be squeezed}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_20.jpg?​300|prepping the bag of mash to be squeezed}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_21.jpg?​300|wort ready to be boiled}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_21.jpg?​300|wort ready to be boiled}}
  
 16h45 16h45
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 We put the contents of the most acidic sac of hops in a "​sock"​ and set it to boil in the wort, clamping the sock to one of the cauldron handles. ​ In the future we should use clothes pins, not carpenter'​s clamps. We put the contents of the most acidic sac of hops in a "​sock"​ and set it to boil in the wort, clamping the sock to one of the cauldron handles. ​ In the future we should use clothes pins, not carpenter'​s clamps.
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_22.jpg?​300|first hops sock}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_22.jpg?​300|first hops sock}}
  
 17h50 17h50
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 The cauldron was turned off and the cooling water was turned on at a fairly high flow.  The temperature of the wort plunged from 98°C to 25°C in about 15 minutes. ​ I was surprised at how effective the coil was because other blogs mention cooling times typically about 25-30 minutes. The cauldron was turned off and the cooling water was turned on at a fairly high flow.  The temperature of the wort plunged from 98°C to 25°C in about 15 minutes. ​ I was surprised at how effective the coil was because other blogs mention cooling times typically about 25-30 minutes.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_23.jpg?​300|cooling the wort}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_23.jpg?​300|cooling the wort}}
  
  
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 Stopped cooling. ​ Noticed strange delicate formations of protein floating in the wort. Stopped cooling. ​ Noticed strange delicate formations of protein floating in the wort.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_7.jpg?​300|cooling coil in the wort}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_7.jpg?​300|cooling coil in the wort}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_8.jpg?​300|cooling coil in the wort}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_8.jpg?​300|cooling coil in the wort}}
  
 18h35 18h35
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 After elevating one edge of the cauldron with a block of styrofoam, we siphoned the wort into the fermenting vat.  To fill the siphoning hose, I had to suck on the bottom end and I got a mouthful of wort.  Mildly sweet, not over-powering;​ I was expecting something stronger. After elevating one edge of the cauldron with a block of styrofoam, we siphoned the wort into the fermenting vat.  To fill the siphoning hose, I had to suck on the bottom end and I got a mouthful of wort.  Mildly sweet, not over-powering;​ I was expecting something stronger.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121208_9.jpg?​300|Michael holding the siphoning hose in place}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121208_9.jpg?​300|Michael holding the siphoning hose in place}}
  
 18h45 18h45
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 I think this beer is lost.  There seem to be delicate mats of scum floating near the surface resembling a kombucha culture. ​ Tasted the wort and it has a bit of a sour vinegar taste. ​ Specific gravity is still about 1.032 or maybe 1.031. ​ I will wait until after the new year before deciding whether or not to dump this batch. I think this beer is lost.  There seem to be delicate mats of scum floating near the surface resembling a kombucha culture. ​ Tasted the wort and it has a bit of a sour vinegar taste. ​ Specific gravity is still about 1.032 or maybe 1.031. ​ I will wait until after the new year before deciding whether or not to dump this batch.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121223_1.jpg?​300|wort with bacterial/​fungal colonies floating in it}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121223_1.jpg?​300|wort with bacterial/​fungal colonies floating in it}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer5_20121223_2.jpg?​300|wort with bacterial/​fungal colonies floating in it}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer5_20121223_2.jpg?​300|wort with bacterial/​fungal colonies floating in it}}
  
  
Ligne 360: Ligne 361:
 I should note here that drinking moderate amounts (<300ml) of hooch no longer causes me headaches or nausea, so perhaps purification is not absolutely necessary. I should note here that drinking moderate amounts (<300ml) of hooch no longer causes me headaches or nausea, so perhaps purification is not absolutely necessary.
  
-{{:​projects:​beer6_20130105_1.jpg?​300|1kg package of Granucol FA activated carbon pellets}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer6_20130105_1.jpg?​300|1kg package of Granucol FA activated carbon pellets}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer6_20130105_2.jpg?​300|1g dose of Granucol FA activated carbon pellets}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer6_20130105_2.jpg?​300|1g dose of Granucol FA activated carbon pellets}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer6_20130105_3.jpg?​300|2 half-litre bottles of hooch before food coloring and carbon}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer6_20130105_3.jpg?​300|2 half-litre bottles of hooch before food coloring and carbon}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer6_20130105_4.jpg?​300|1 litre bowl of hooch tinted green}} +{{:projects:beer:​beer6_20130105_4.jpg?​300|1 litre bowl of hooch tinted green}} 
-{{:​projects:​beer6_20130105_5.jpg?​300|2 half-litre bottles of hooch after, carbon bottle on the left}}+{{:projects:beer:​beer6_20130105_5.jpg?​300|2 half-litre bottles of hooch after, carbon bottle on the left}}
  
 (WHERE IS THE PHOTO?) After 2 weeks the bottle treated with carbon had cleared and there was no green tint left.  However, the liquid still had a bit of milky tint to it.  Perhaps the pore size of this carbon is really good for removing color, but it does not seem to work so well on larger floating impurities. (WHERE IS THE PHOTO?) After 2 weeks the bottle treated with carbon had cleared and there was no green tint left.  However, the liquid still had a bit of milky tint to it.  Perhaps the pore size of this carbon is really good for removing color, but it does not seem to work so well on larger floating impurities.
Ligne 438: Ligne 439:
 It took longer than I remembered to get set up for bottling the beer, but I did a few things differently this time.  To avoid getting a lot of trub mixed with the beer during the bottling process, I siphoned into one of the 19l water bottles, losing 2 litres of beer in the process. ​ If the water bottle had been big enough, I think I would have sacrificed only 0.5l. It took longer than I remembered to get set up for bottling the beer, but I did a few things differently this time.  To avoid getting a lot of trub mixed with the beer during the bottling process, I siphoned into one of the 19l water bottles, losing 2 litres of beer in the process. ​ If the water bottle had been big enough, I think I would have sacrificed only 0.5l.
  
-The priming was accomplished by mixing approximately 20lx8g/l of jam sugar (white sugar with gelatin) in 0.5l of boiling water, stirring until perfectly dissolved, adding to the water bottle, and then siphoning from the fermenting vat into the water bottle.+The priming was accomplished by mixing approximately 20lx8g/l=160g of jam sugar (white sugar with gelatin) in 0.5l of boiling water, stirring until perfectly dissolved, adding to the water bottle, and then siphoning from the fermenting vat into the water bottle.
  
 The beer is very dark but otherwise clear. ​ There were brown crumbs of krausen floating on the surface of the fermenting vat.  I hope not too much got into the bottles in the end. The beer is very dark but otherwise clear. ​ There were brown crumbs of krausen floating on the surface of the fermenting vat.  I hope not too much got into the bottles in the end.
Ligne 446: Ligne 447:
 There were about 30x350ml bottles and 20x500ml bottles. ​ The smaller bottles may be contaminated with a bit of eau-de-javel taste because I think I forgot to rinse them. There were about 30x350ml bottles and 20x500ml bottles. ​ The smaller bottles may be contaminated with a bit of eau-de-javel taste because I think I forgot to rinse them.
  
-===== Some links (online shops, etc...) =====+Conclusion: This was the best batch yet, in my opinion. ​ Carbonisation was just right: not too much and not too little, with little variation between bottles. ​ The ale was dark and stayed mostly clear except for a bit of yeast build-up from the priming process. ​ The taste was like a Guinness, but not as strong, with no trace of sweetness, indicating complete fermentation. ​ I tried a bottle 4 weeks after bottling and was a bit concerned to notice a trace of acidity, maybe indicating bacteria, but after 6 weeks the bottles were all perfect and I noticed no acidity. ​ The batch was completely consumed between November 1 and December 15. 
 + 
 +===== Experiment 9 - Cooper'​s India pale ale kit ===== 
 + 
 +2013-11-29 
 + 
 +Temperature in the Cellier has dropped to the 18°C-21°C range, but I was too busy to do a grain brew.  Instead, I brewed the next-oldest beer kit, the Cooper'​s India pale ale.  The recommended temperature range for fermenting is the same as the other Cooper'​s ale kits, i.e. 21°C-27°C,​ so this one might not work so well. 
 + 
 +Proceeded the same way as with the last dark ale batch. ​ Instead of directly sprinkling the yeast onto the wort, I first prepared a cube of sugar dissolved in a half-cup of warm water and mixed the yeast into the water when it was about 24°C. 
 + 
 +Here is what I noted on the brewing record that came with the instructions:​ 
 + 
 +  * Type of product: India pale ale 
 +  * Date of brewing: 2013-11-29 
 +  * Volume of water added: 21l 
 +  * Type of sugars added: white 
 +  * Amount of sugars added: 1kg 
 +  * Can, best before date (on can): 2014-08-17 
 +  * Yeast, code on sachet: 03112IPA 
 +  * Temperature of wort before adding yeast: 20.4°C 
 +  * Original gravity (before adding yeast): 1.037 
 + 
 +I measured the specific gravity twice: 
 + 
 +  * 2013-12-10: 1.010 
 +  * 2013-12-17: 1.004 
 + 
 +Theoretically this should result in a typical 4.9%abv ale. 
 + 
 +2013-12-20 
 + 
 +{{:​projects:​beer:​beer9_20131220_1.jpg?​200|a bit more than half of the batch bottled}} 
 + 
 +Starting at 15h45 and ending at 20h30, I bottled this batch of beer.  The first 19 litres were done using the method of decanting+priming established for the dark ale, i.e. 8g of jam sugar per litre. ​ No cleaning mistakes this time, but it was slow doing this work alone. 
 + 
 +REMINDER TO SELF: When filling bottles with bleach solution, drown 2 at a time. 
 + 
 +The first 12 litres were siphoned using the bottling cane, but there were a couple of occasions where air infiltrated into the line, perhaps through a leak in the joints, perhaps through a hole in the silicone tubing. ​ After processing about 12 litres (finishing all of the clear bottles and using 3 of the brown Fischer bottles), the silicone siphoning hose would no longer stay below the surface of the beer. 
 + 
 +REMINDER TO SELF: Refurbish the bottling cane before bottling another batch. ​ Add a stiff tube to the other end of the tube too. 
 + 
 +Bottled the rest using a funnel and brown bottles. ​ The funnel is easier to use than the cane, but there was much more air mixed into the beer. 
 + 
 +REMINDER TO SELF: A combination of funnel+cane might be the best of both methods. 
 + 
 +The last 3 litres of beer were poured by funnel directly into brown beer bottles and they will probably be pretty turbid. 
 + 
 +2014-01-20 (and after) 
 + 
 +After 4 weeks we started drinking the bottled beer.  I initially detected a bit of a soapy taste that some sources on the Internet claim comes from decomposing yeast. ​ I felt that the beer improved noticably after the 5th week and gave a couple of bottles to family members with instructions not to open before February 6th. 
 + 
 +The colour and clarity of all bottles (even the brown ones) are good, but darker than I expected, and the taste is dry and hoppy, i.e. there is absolutely no trace of sugar and this beer is the most bitter of all of the batches thus far.  The sediment at the bottom of the bottles is easily disturbed on the first pour, but it sticks together in reasonably-large clumps and does not disturb the clarity. 
 + 
 +===== Experiment 10 - SIOS Altbier full-grain ale, attempt #2 ===== 
 + 
 +2014-02-15 
 + 
 +Finally found the time to re-attempt brewing the SIOS Altbier full-grain ale of 2012-12-08. ​ The goal was to redo this recipe but without any mistakes this time and fewer improvisations. ​ It helps that SIOS sent {{:​projects:​beer:​sios-altbier-english-version-2013-10-05.pdf|the recipe in English}} this time. 
 + 
 +First change is that intead of using the dry yeast option, I decided to pay more (a lot more) for a Wyeast 1007 live yeast packet. ​ This is a 125g plastic packet of yeast with a smaller plasic packet of sugar solution inside of it.  When you decide that you want to use the yeast packet, you need to pop the interior packet and let the yeast sit for 3 hours or more at room temperature. ​ They say that the packet can be stored for 6 months at 4°C, but the first one turned out to be dead, perhaps because the PTL refrigerator got unplugged at some point. ​ The second packet I bought worked OK.  Here is what it looks like warming up in a bowl of room-temperature water. ​ For most of the first 3 hours it did not seem to be blowing up, but then it finally began to expand. 
 + 
 +{{:​projects:​beer:​beer10_20140215_1.jpg?​300|packet of Wyeast 1007 live yeast warming up with a glass of water to keep it submerged}} 
 + 
 +There were two major equipment changes for this experiment. ​ The boiler is now insulated by a aluminium-mylar-and-foam blanket that is normally used to protect automobile windshields from heat.  The "​beer-bag"​ that holds the malted barley mash has been replaced by a home-made version (thanks, Christiane!) with a finer mesh on the bottom than the one used in our first effort. 
 + 
 +In addition, the 4.7kg sac of malted barley has already been milled by SIOS.  Examining it closely, I cannot see a difference in fragment size between SIOS's milling and our milling, so I think we got it right the first time. 
 + 
 +{{:​projects:​beer:​beer10_20140215_2.jpg?​300|improved equipment including insulated boiler and home-made mesh bag}} 
 + 
 +At around 12h30, I started heating 12 litres of tap water to 54°C, aided by adding 1.5 litre batchs of boiling water done in a kettle. ​ The SIOS recipe instructions are very precise and I do not believe that my measurement of temperature is more accurate than a few degrees. ​ The mash procedure is to: 
 + 
 +  * heat 12 litres to 54°C 
 +  * add the malted barley, dropping temperature to 52°C 
 +  * hold for 10 minutes 
 +  * heat to 62°C 
 +  * hold for 30 minutes 
 +  * heat to 72°C 
 +  * hold for 20 minutes 
 +  * heat to 78°C 
 +  * hold for 5 minutes before removing the beer-bag 
 + 
 +After adding the barley malt, the boiler was only half-full. ​ This permitted me to cover the boiler with its lid which sped up the heating. ​ It takes about 5 minutes to increase the temperature by 10°C. 
 + 
 +{{:​projects:​beer:​beer10_20140215_3.jpg?​300|mash is starting to boil, this time with the boiler only half-full}} 
 + 
 +At 14h00, Sebastien Chassot helped me to lift the beer-bag out of the boiler and balance it on a pair of metal beams over the boiler while I poured 10 litres of hot water through the bag to extract as much malt as possible. ​ The sack filled with spent malt was placed in a plastic refrigerator box, to be used later for making bread. ​ TODO: build a draining rack for holding the beer-bag over the boiler. 
 + 
 +{{:​projects:​beer:​beer10_20140215_5.jpg?​300|kept the sack of spent malt to be used for bread-making}} 
 + 
 +The wort was brought to a low boil and the first hops sock of 6.6% acid was thrown in.  After 40 minutes, the second sock of 4.2% acid was added and the wort was boiled for another 20 minutes. 
 + 
 +{{:​projects:​beer:​beer10_20140215_4.jpg?​300|boiling wort with the first hops sock floating in it}} 
 +{{:​projects:​beer:​beer10_20140215_6.jpg?​300|boiled wort with two hops socks, about to be cooled}} 
 + 
 +In total we managed to make 18.5 litres of wort.  As before, the cooling coil was very efficient, but this time there was no coagulation of protein or other gunk.  Later, when we siphoned the cooled wort into the fermenting vat, we discovered very little solid matter at the bottom of the boiler, so it looks like the new beer-bag did its job much better than the old one. 
 + 
 +{{:​projects:​beer:​beer10_20140215_7.jpg?​300|there was just enough wort to completely cover the cooling coil}} 
 + 
 +The original gravity is 1.058 at about 20°C. ​ The taste is very sweet with very little bitterness. ​ I think that we did not add enough water and this beer is going to be stronger than the original recipe. 
 + 
 +Except for cleaning up, the batch was done by 15h30, therefore it took about 3 hours in total. 
 + 
 +2014-02-18 
 + 
 +Examined the fermenting beer.  It has a lovely 3cm-thick layer of foam on top. 
 + 
 +{{:​projects:​beer:​beer10_20140218_1.jpg?​300|the wort is fermenting nicely with a thick, creamy layer of foam on top}} 
 + 
 +The gravity is 1.018 at about 20°C. ​ The taste is still somewhat sweet. 
 + 
 + 
 +2014-02-21 
 + 
 +The gravity is 1.016 at about 20°C. ​ The taste is perhaps a bit less sweet. 
 + 
 + 
 +2014-02-25 
 + 
 +The gravity is 1.014 at about 20°C. ​ The foam has collapsed to a layer that is a few millimetres thick. ​ I am concerned that the fermentation may have almost stopped since there has been only 0.004 of change in the last 7 days... 
 + 
 + 
 +2014-03-07 
 + 
 +The gravity is 1.014 at about 20°C. ​ The foam has dropped to the bottom of the fermentation vat and I decided to bottle at this point. ​ Siphoned from the vat to a 19 litre water bottle, leaving behind 1 litre of yeast. ​ Primed with 145g of gelifying sugar mixed with 500ml of boiling water. 
 + 
 + 
 +2014-03-31 
 + 
 +Although the "​correct"​ tasting time should have been 2014-04-07, I started drinking the beer today. ​ It is pretty good, but too sweet for my taste and not much hops taste. ​ I wonder if it is a mistake to put the pelletised hops in the socks rather than just letting it simply dissolve in the wort.  The malt taste is quite strong and it resembles the "​8.8"​ beer that one can buy at the Denner. ​ Others have said that it was the best beer I have done thus far, but I think that they just liked the sweet hopless taste. ​ I discovered that drinking more than 1 litre per day gives me a headache. 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Experiment 11 - Cooper'​s Canadian blonde kit ===== 
 + 
 +2014-04-19 
 + 
 +I bought a [[http://​www.sios.ch/​Keg-18-Liter-NC-Occasion_2|second-hand 18-litre ball-lock (aka NC-type) keg]] and a [[http://​www.sios.ch/​SIOS-Zapfspirale_2|cheap portable siphon]] to go with it from SIOS.ch. ​ Since I wanted to test it with a simple kit before committing to the work of storing a mash brew in it, I picked the Canadian blonde kit to use as a test beer. 
 + 
 + 
 +Here is what I noted on the brewing record that came with the instructions:​ 
 + 
 +  * Type of product: Canadian blonde 
 +  * Date of brewing: 2014-04-19 
 +  * Volume of water added: 22l 
 +  * Type of sugars added: brown and white 
 +  * Amount of sugars added: 0.5kg brown, 0.5kg white 
 +  * Can, best before date (on can):  
 +  * Yeast, code on sachet: 33212 (barcode: 0 88119 00007) 
 +  * Temperature of wort before adding yeast: 24.8°C 
 +  * Original gravity (before adding yeast): 1.037 
 + 
 +I measured the specific gravity 4 times in all: 
 + 
 +  * 2014-04-19: 1.037 
 +  * 2014-04-22: 1.023 
 +  * 2014-04-25: 1.013 
 +  * 2014-04-29: 1.004 
 + 
 +According to [[http://​www.dd26943.com/​davesdreaded/​tools/​convert.htm|Dave'​s Dreaded Actual Specific Gravity Calculator]],​ 
 + 
 +|The % alcohol (By Weight) if your brew is 3.42.| 
 +|The % alcohol (By Volume) if your brew is 4.34.| 
 + 
 +Assuming that I add the usual amount of priming sugar, the %abv should go up about another 0.5% to 4.8%abv. 
 + 
 +2014-05-03 
 + 
 +Bottling day of the Canadian blonde. 
 +"​Sterilised"​ the keg by filling with 2l boiling water and then 17l of hot tap water and left the keg to soak for about 30 minutes. ​ Temperature was about 63°C in the end. 
 +"​Sterilised"​ 7 0.7l and 0.8l swing-top bottles adding to about 5.3l with hot tap water. 
 +Mixed the rest of the jelly sugar (64g) with some white sugar to get 176g, i.e. about 8g per litre. ​ Reserved 24g for 3l extra beer => 152g for 19litres 
 +Filled the keg with a siphoning hose, leaving a 5cm headspace. 
 +Filled the 7 bottles and had about 0.5l beer left over that I dumped. 
 + 
 + 
 +2014-05-07 
 + 
 +Uh-oh. ​ I read in a couple of places that if one is priming beer for a keg, one should use only 1/3 to 1/2 the usual amount of priming sugar! ​ I hope that I have not made a bomb... 
 + 
 + 
 +2014-05-09 
 + 
 +My fears about an explosion were unnecessary. ​ There was absolutely no pressure in the keg when I checked, so it looks like the priming did not work!  There was a bit of scum on the surface (maybe protein) and a few scummy bubbles and not much else.  Tasted the beer and it seemed like a normal relatively flat sweet green beer.  No hint of sourness, so I doubt that there is a bacterial infection. 
 + 
 +What happened? ​ Did all of the yeast die or what? 
 + 
 +Pitched a teaspoon of dry-yeast (about 3g) activated 30 minutes before in a glass of sugar water into the keg. 
 + 
 +Checked one of the bottles and found that there was some gas build-up, normal level, I think. 
 + 
 + 
 +2014-05-11 
 + 
 +Checked the keg and there was still practically no pressure. ​ But after searching for "korny keg priming sugar"​ 
 +I came to the conclusion that the large O-ring in the lid is not sealing properly. 
 + 
 +I found a number of forum references where they recommend pressurising the keg to at least 1/3 atmosphere in order to seal the keg after filling it.  I had just assumed that since the keg was delivered pressurised that it could easily seal.  So it looks like I am going to be forced to buy a gas system. ​ Looked for silicone sealant in the lab, but did not find any.  I think that water-based lubricant jelly should work too and be more food-safe. 
 + 
 +[[http://​www.homebrewtalk.com/​f35/​how-do-you-get-corny-keg-friggin-seal-154635/​|Here is a forum thread that shows that getting a good seal is not obvious.]] ​ One interesting technique is to boil the lid to soften the O-ring and get a better seal, so I tried that. 
 + 
 +2014-05-20 
 + 
 +Briefly pressed the IN valve of the keg and a bit of gas escaped this time, so apparently the keg is holding pressure. ​ But it was pretty weak and I am almost positive that external pressurisation is going to be necessary. 
 + 
 +I already drank one of the 600ml bottles. ​ It is OK, not remarkable, and still a bit green. ​ Maybe another week is necessary. ​ Tried using the "​frosty glass" technique to chill the room-temperature beer and I admit that it helps a bit, but it is not perfect. ​ Maybe going to need a fridge for the keg(s) too... 
 + 
 +2014-09-16 
 + 
 +Finally got around to buying the CO2 necessary to pressurise the keg.  Using the slow force carbonisation chart and assuming room-temperature ale, I used [[http://​www.kegerators.com/​carbonation-table.php|this table]] to decide to set the regulator to 2 bar (15psi), but I could probably have gone higher. ​ Beer will be at steady-state carbonisation in 10-14 days.  At the moment, it comes out easily but it tastes pretty poor.  Apart from the beers that went sour, this one is probably the worst. ​ About the only good thing I can say about it is that at least it has alcohol. 
 + 
 +2014-09-23 
 + 
 +Drank about 2 litres of beer this afternoon. ​ Although it is well-carbonised,​ it is still not very good and I feel that it has a bit of a soapy taste. ​ The beer pours with a fairly big head of foam, but the gas does not last long, probably due to its warm temperature. 
 +===== Experiment 12 - sage-bittered gruit ale, full-grain ===== 
 + 
 +2014-05-09 
 + 
 +After reading about the [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​8-prenylnaringenin|phyto-estrogen found in hops]], I thought I would look into making gruit, medieval ale 
 +based on bittering herbs other than hops.  Since there is a lot of sage in my garden, [[http://​gruitale.com/​rec_sage.htm|these recipes for sage ale]] are a good start. ​ (Unfortunately,​ according to Wikipedia, [[http://​en.wikipedia.or/​wiki/​Salvia_officinalis|sage also is a source of phyto-estrogens]]! ​ Damn.) 
 + 
 +  * 5kg of pre-ground [[http://​www.sios.ch/​Muenchner-Malz-15-EBC-ab-1-kg_1|SIOS Münchner Malz 15 EBC]] 
 +  * 69g of fresh sage leaves 
 +  * 10g of [[http://​www.sios.ch/​Brewferm-Ale-dried-yeast-obergaerig-100-g|Brewferm dried ale yeast]] 
 + 
 +I roughly followed the same procedure that I used for the SIOS Altbier in Experiment 10. 
 + 
 +Starting at 17h00, the procedure was: 
 + 
 +  * heat 12 litres of cold tap water to 62°C 
 +  * add the malted barley, dropping temperature to 55°C 
 +  * hold for 10 minutes 
 +  * heat to 63°C 
 +  * hold for 30 minutes 
 +  * heat to 73°C 
 +  * hold for 20 minutes 
 +  * heat to 78°C 
 +  * hold for 15 minutes before removing the beer-bag and washed with 3l of boiling water 
 +  * added 8l boiling water to the wort for a total volume of 19.2l 
 +  * added chopped sage leaves 
 +  * heated to a slow boil that continued for 60 minutes 
 +  * cooled to 24°C with cooling coil 
 +  * transferred to fermenting vat, leaving less than 0.5l of gunk 
 +  * added 10g of yeast that had been mixed 1 hour before with warm water and a white sugar cube 
 + 
 +Finished at 20h30. ​ Measured OG was 1.055 at about 24°C. 
 + 
 +Tasted the wort but I cannot honestly say that there was more than a hint of sage.  However, the odor was apparent in the lab during the brewing. ​ Since the sage bush was flowering, I wonder if the sage leaves were not simply a bit weak.  FOR NEXT TIME: double the mass of sage. 
 + 
 +Density measurements:​ 
 + 
 +  * 2014-05-09: 1.055 
 +  * 2014-05-11: 1.030 
 + 
 +2014-05-20 
 + 
 +Disaster. ​ Went to bottle the ale and discovered that it had turned sour so I had to dump it.  There were a few small floating mats of scum on the surface (apart from the bits of sage leaves). ​ Charlie Sellers did not think it was that sour, but I remember this smell and taste from December 2012; if I had left it alone for a few more weeks, it would have been as sour as tomato juice. 
 + 
 +I really have no idea what went wrong; I am pretty sure that my sterilisation technique and hygiene were perfect. ​ Charlie believes that the infection came when I opened the airlock for fermentation measurement and released the CO2 atmosphere, but that seems implausible to me.  If this is the cause, then why is it only the mash beers that are going sour and not the kit beers? 
 + 
 +===== Experiment 13 - cider from commercial pasteurised apple juice ===== 
 + 
 +2014-09-12 
 + 
 +After reading this [[http://​www.mrmoneymustache.com/​2014/​04/​22/​brew-your-own-cider/​|article on Mister Money Mustache]], it occured to me that I was doing things the hard way.  If hard (alcoholic) cider is really as simple as buying a jug of apple juice and tossing in a half-teaspoon of champagne yeast, why not try it? 
 + 
 +It is not that simple around here.  I did not find a source of fruit juice in convenient 5-litre or 10-litre glass jugs.  I did not find dry champagne yeast. ​ What I did find is pasteurised apple juice at the Denner for CHF1.10 per litre in 1-litre cartons and [[http://​www.sios.ch/​4766-Cider-Wyeast-Activator_2|liquid cider and wine yeast]] for CHF11.40. ​ Way too expensive, so I decided to make a jar of yeast starter and use only half of it to make a 24-litre batch of cidre. 
 + 
 + 
 + 
 +2014-09-14 
 + 
 +Over the weekend I monitored the progress of the yeast in the 1 litre of apple juice using the lab webcam and saw that the yeast falls to the bottom instead of floating on the surface like an ale. 
 + 
 +{{:​projects:​beer:​beer13_20140913_1.jpg?​300|Starter yeast in 1 litre of apple juice.}} 
 + 
 +With the help of Martin, Yvonne, and Alexandre, we innoculated a batch of 24 litres of Denner apple juice using half of the yeast-and-juice solution. 
 + 
 +The O.G. of the juice was 1.041. 
 + 
 +2014-09-23 
 + 
 +Bottled the cider this afternoon with the help of Martin. ​ Worked from 16h30 to 18h30. 
 + 
 +The F.G. of the cider was 1.004 and the taste was quite dry but flat and a little weak in apple taste, in my opinion. ​ In fact, it tasted very similar to Ebbelwoi from Frankfurt. 
 + 
 +Assuming that the homebrew calculator is valid for cider, the alcohol content is 4.8%abv. 
 + 
 +I added 175g of fructose priming sugar dissolved in 500ml of hot water and decanted the cider which was quite clear. ​ This should add another 0.5%abv. ​ All of the yeast had neatly fallen to the bottom of the vat and I was able to recuperate almost all of the liquid except for perhaps 300ml which I stored in a glass jar at room temperature for future use. 
 + 
 +2014-10-07 
 + 
 +After waiting about 5 days we started to drink the cider bottles. ​ And, after about 12 days, we have almost run out.  When carbonated and chilled, the cider was extremely drinkable and resembled commercial product except for a very thin layer of yeast at the bottom of the bottles. 
 + 
 +===== Experiment 14 - cider from commercial pasteurised apple juice and recycled Wyeast ===== 
 + 
 +2014-10-07 
 + 
 +In preparation for the next batch of cider, I removed the 300ml jar of yeast to room temperature,​ added a teaspoon of fructose, stirred throughly, and lightly fasten the lid to permit gas to escape. ​ After a day, there were a few bubbles on the surface, so I assume that the yeast is alive. 
 + 
 +2014-10-09 
 + 
 +Did another 24 litre batch of cider based on Denner apple juice and the recycled yeast culture. ​ The yeast had a bit of a sour smell to it and I wonder if some bacteria got in there. ​ Maybe this will turn out to be a batch of apple vinegar. 
 + 
 +O.G. was 1.041 at 22.7°C. 
 +====== Some links (online shops, etc...) ​======
  
 http://​www.brouwland.com/ ​ http://​www.brouwland.com/ ​
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 http://​www.sios.ch/​ http://​www.sios.ch/​
  
-===== Beer recipes and more =====+====== Beer recipes and more ======
  
 http://​hbd.org/​recipator/​ http://​hbd.org/​recipator/​
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 http://​www.beersmith.com/​recipes.htm repice from brewsmith website http://​www.beersmith.com/​recipes.htm repice from brewsmith website
  
-===== Thanks =====+====== Thanks ​======
  
 Special thanks to: Special thanks to:
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   * Caroline Hirt for assisting in brewing the first batch and photographing the procedure.   * Caroline Hirt for assisting in brewing the first batch and photographing the procedure.
  
-  * Christiane Bremer Rossen for assisting in the bottling of the first batch.+  * Christiane Bremer Rossen for assisting in the bottling of the first batch and for sewing a home-made beer bag using synthetic mesh fabric. 
projects/beer/beer.1380700322.txt.gz · Dernière modification: 2013/10/02 09:52 par rossen